Penilaian Kualitas Estetika Fasade Bangunan Landmark Bersejarah Kota Malang Melalui Pendekatan Environmental dan Computational Aesthetics

Authors

  • Farah Rosa Bela Asnawi Brawijaya University
  • Herry Santosa Brawijaya University

Keywords:

historical building, facade, public perceptions, computational aesthetics

Abstract

Kota Malang terkenal dengan Tri Bina Cita, yang memuat tiga pondasi utama sektor pembangunan kota yaitu industri, pendidikan dan pariwisata termasuk di dalamnya yaitu pengembangan wisata sejarah (historic tourism). Wisata sejarah memiliki cakupan mulai dari wisata budaya hingga meliputi wisata bangunan bersejarah, yang salah satunya adalah bangunan bersejarah landmark yang menjadi citra kota Malang. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menjaga signifikansi kesejarahan bangunan bersejarah, citra serta identitas Kota Malang sebagai urban heritage. Studi kasus penelitian menggunakan bangunan landmark bersejarah yang merupakan simbol citra kota dan sekaligus menjadi barometer heritage tourism kota Malang. Ada enam bangunan landmark kota Malang yang menjadi obyek penelitian yaitu Balai Kota, Gereja Hati Kudus, Gedung PLN, Sekolah Frateran, Sekolah Cor Jesu, Stasiun Kota Baru. Upayaupaya yang dapat dilakukan untuk menjaga signifikansi kesejarahan bangunan terhadap fasade bangunan landmark bersejarah kota Malang dapat melalui penilaian estetika fasade bangunan dengan metode penelitian kuantitatif. Penelitian ini menggunakan dua pendekatan bidang keilmuan environmental aesthetics dan computational aesthetics. Pendekatan bidang keilmuan environmental aesthetics menggunakan metode public perceptions dengan skala pengukuran semantic differential scales. Sedangkan pendekatan bidang keilmuan computational aesthetics melalui aplikasi software Interface Aesthetic Measurement (IAM) dengan menggunakan 13 variabel keindahan. Sintesis hasil persepsi publik dan analisis IAM menyimpulkan bahwa ada kesamaan penilaian sebesar 83,3 %, dimana bangunan Cor Jesu memiliki penilaian kualitas estetika fasad bangunan yang tertinggi dan bangunan PLN memiliki penilaian yang terendah. Sedangkan fasad bangunan Balaikota memiliki perbedaan hasil penilaian antara kedua metode. Kata kunci: bangunan bersejarah, fasade, public perceptions, computational aestheticsMalang city is known for Tri Bina Cita, which consists of the three main foundations of the urban development sector: industry, education and tourism including the development of historical tourism. It has a scope ranging from cultural tourism to historic building tourism, one of which is the historical landmark building that has become the image of the city of Malang. This research was aimed to maintain the historical significance of historical buildings, the image and identity of Malang City as an urban heritage. The research case study uses historical landmark buildings which are a symbol of the city's image and at the same time become a barometer of Malang's heritage tourism. Six landmark buildings are used as the research object, namely the Town Hall, Hati Kudus Church, PLN Building, Frateran School, Cor Jesu School and Malang City Station. The efforts to preserve the historical significance of Malang City's historical landmark buildings facade can be supported by evaluating the aesthetic aspects using a quantitative method of research. This study was performed with two scientific approaches, namely environmental asthetic and computational aesthetics. Environmental asthetic approach utilized a public perceptions method with the semantic differential scales. Meanwhile, the computational aesthetics approach utilized the Interface Aesthetic Measurement (IAM) software using 13 aesthetic variables. The synthesis of the public perceptions results’ and the IAM analysis concluded that there was a similarity in the assessment of 83.3%, where the Cor Jesu building had the highest aesthetic quality rating of the building facade and the PLN building had the lowest rating. Meanwhile, the facade of the City Hall building has differences in the results of the assessment between the two methods.

Author Biographies

Farah Rosa Bela Asnawi, Brawijaya University

Architecture Department

Herry Santosa, Brawijaya University

Architecture Department

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Published

2021-07-31

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Articles